SSHRC Partnership Development

Determining the value of community based police teams

Principal Investigator: Linda Duxbury, Professor
Funder: SSHRC & MITACS

In an era where the costs of policing are constantly under scrutiny, the time has come for policing organizations to re-evaluate the services they provide. To do this, these organizations need to answer questions relating to the value these services create in the communities they serve and change the focus of the conversation from “what does this service cost?” to “what value does this service provide to key stakeholders?”  In the summer of 2019, in response to pressure from the community, the Ottawa Police Service (OPS) decided to reintroduce community-oriented police (COP) teams back into three Ottawa neighborhoods. We will undertake a longitudinal (January 2020 to December 2021) multi-method (quantitative, qualitative, and ethnographic data) case study to identify the value COP teams provide to a variety of key stakeholders. Of particular note is the application of Social Return on Investment (SROI) techniques (along with the more traditional cost benefit approach) in the proposed evaluation process. SROI, a methodology that emerged from the not-for-profit sector, helps researchers identify sources of value outside of those considered through traditional valuation techniques, such as cost-benefit analysis.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – SSHRC Insight

Frank JiangPrivate Participation in Infrastructure Investment: An Analysis of Project Consortium

Principal Investigator: Frank Jiang, International Business
Funder: SSHRC Insight

While most countries are facing the pressing need to substantially increase investment in infrastructure to meet social and economic needs,  most governments recognize that they cannot meet the financial need for infrastructure investment through tax revenues or aid alone, and that greater participation by private investors in infrastructure sector is necessary. The development of an infrastructure project is often led by an investment consortium, also called special investment vehicle (SPV), that consists of domestic and international private investors (also called sponsors). However, in-depth analysis of investor, investor consortium or project attributes is lacking. Hence, our understanding of organizational dynamics underlying the development of individual infrastructure investment projects is limited. In this study, Dr. Jiang will focus on the characteristics and performance of investment consortia, specifically exploring a consortium’s organizational attributes such as inter-sponsor diversity, sponsors’ experience, and the distinct roles of corporate and financial sponsors. The results of the research will be of particular interest to many Canadian and international firms engaged in this growing sector, as well as policy researchers focusing on this phenomenon.

Two decades of wage transparency: taking stock of the outcomes of Ontario’s Salary Disclosure Act

Principal Investigator: Isaac Otchere, Finance
Funder: SSHRC Insight

In 1996, the Ontario provincial government introduced the Public Sector Salary Disclosure Act, which led to a regime of mandatory public disclosure of compensation information. To make Ontario’s public sector more open and accountable to taxpayers, the Act requires organizations that receive public funding from the Ontario Government to disclose annually the names, positions, salaries and total taxable benefits of employees who were paid $100,000 or more in the previous calendar year. According to Ibbitson, a biographer of the Harris government that introduced what has become known as the Sunshine List, the yearly release was aimed at stirring outrage among the public over public servants’ compensation. This public discontent, together with greater transparency and comparability of salary information across entities, was expected to translate into pressure for moderation. Dr. Otchere and Dr. Duxbury’s research investigates a series of interesting second-order changes that can be linked to the Act, including the extent to which employees perceive that their privacy have been violated and the impact on salary disparity on employee morale, productivity and organizational and interpersonal relations. This program of study will provide empirical evidence on these issues, which can ultimately benefit the Ontario government as well as other provinces that have either recently implemented or are contemplating implementing similar policies.

Launching a Career in the 21st Century

Principal Investigator: Linda Schweitzer, Management
Funder: SSHRC Insight

The goal of the proposed research is to systematically examine challenges and opportunities of the modern career launch process and their impacts on today’s career entrants. Our examination proceeds from a career development perspective; we are focused on how young people think and feel about the pressures and possibilities inherent in launching a modern career and the influences they have on individual career decision making and behaviours. This perspective will allow us recommend individual-level interventions to help educators, employers and career entrants understand and better navigate career launch in the 21st century.

Greg SearsEmployment equity and workplace diversity/inclusion: Current Canadian practices, successful implementation, and areas for modernization

Principal Investigator: Greg Sears, Management
Funder: SSHRC Insight

The Employment Equity Act (EEA) has not been reviewed since 1995, and it is unclear if the EEA is still effective, if it needs to be revised, and if new or existing minority groups will need to be added or dropped. Recent studies indicate that visible minorities and women continue to experience the glass ceiling, while Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities remain underrepresented in the workforce. There is also increasing evidence of discrimination against older workers, and religious and sexual minorities in the workplace. Despite recent initiatives to modernize EEA legislation in the U.K. and Australia, Canada is lagging behind its counterparts on the global stage in reviewing/modernizing its public policies relating to diversity. Indeed, organizations that comply with the EEA claim to value and implement practices relating to diversity management (DM) and inclusion. However, at the moment, the distinction between DM and inclusion are undifferentiated, leading to conceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners. As a result, it remains unclear if and how anti-discrimination, DM, and inclusion deferentially impact individual and organizational diversity outcomes. Furthermore, we also know very little about the roles that key organizational actors, including CEOs and EE Officers, play in the adoption and implementation of DM and inclusion practices. Although the EE Officer’s role has been characterized as one of being a catalyst of organizational change, their ability to successfully implement diversity and inclusion policies may be contingent on the support provided by the organization’s CEO. Thus, the personal characteristics of the CEO and EE Officer and the nature of their relationship may have a profound impact on the attainment of organizational diversity outcomes. Findings from this project will inform public policy renewal, generate new knowledge on the nature and relational dynamics underlying CEO – EE Officer relationships, and extend theory on DM and inclusion.

Luciara Nardon, associate professor on international business at the Sprott School of Business, standing in front of a window at Carleton University.

A Longitudinal Study of Organized Social Support for Highly-Skilled Immigrant Women’s Social and
Professional Integration

Principal Investigator: Luciara Nardon, International Business
Funder: SSHRC Insight

Despite the critical role of immigrants in sustaining Canadian economic growth, highly-skilled immigrants face a persistent challenge when integrating into the Canadian labour market, experiencing unemployment, underemployment, deskilling, and downward career mobility. Highly-skilled immigrant women face additional integration challenges based on their dependent status, domestic responsibilities, and gender based discrimination. In this research we will undertake a qualitative longitudinal study to investigate the long term impact of organizational programs of support in the social and professional integration of highly-skilled immigrant women.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – SSHRC Insight Development

The Social Internetwork

Principal Investigator: Mohamed Al Guindy, Finance
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

The goal of this project is to construct a novel network of all firms in the economy based on social media discussions. The project will utilize a unique dataset of over 50 million financial tweets, originating from millions of Twitter users to first identify peer firms for each firm in the economy, and subsequently aggregate these connections to construct a network of the whole economy. This network representation of the economy can be viewed as a map of all firms and all the interconnections between them – including the strength of connections. This network view will also identify the formation of clusters – or economically linked firms – on the network. Because this network is based on current social media discussions, clusters of connected firms will form and evolve over time – and this will be captured in this network: making it both dynamic and timely. We refer to this network of the economy based on social media discussions as the “social internetwork”.

profile photo of patrick calleryCorporate Accountability in Voluntary Carbon Emissions Reduction

Principal Investigator: Patrick Callery, Strategic Management
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

This project will address the potential of voluntary institutions, acting through normative and coercive forces, to drive higher rates of GHG emissions reductions by firms in emissions intensive industries. This research will focus on voluntary, intermediated disclosure institutions, tracking both emissions performance and corporate emissions reduction targets over time, as well as corporate political activity related to climate change regulation. The project will assess whether current corporate targets are sufficient for industry to meet relative contributions to global emissions reduction goals. More importantly, the project will determine whether investors and other corporate stakeholders sufficiently hold firms to account for targets and commitments on longterm GHG emissions reductions, and for the consistency of communications on emissions performance over time.

Workplace sexual harassment and the family: Family-specific consequences and family as a foundational intervention

Principal Investigator: Angela Dionisi, Management
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

It is the goal of this research project is to explore how sexual harassment may negatively influence the family, and how the family could potentially influence the enactment of, and response to, sexual harassment. More specifically, we will investigate whether workplace sexual harassment spills over into the family domain, negatively impacting parent specific well being and behaviours. We will also explore whether parents’ workplace sexual harassment has consequences for children. Moreover, as the attitudes and beliefs people hold about sexual harassment influence their enactment and response to this mistreatment, we will also investigate what encourages parents to engage in educative conversations about sexual harassment with their children, and among parents that do have such conversations, what messages they are sharing with youths who will one day occupy our workplaces.

A “Slap in the Face”: The ‘Taking-it-Personally’ Bias in Consumer-Firm Interactions

Principal Investigator: Lindsay McShane, Marketing
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

This research addresses a significant and meaningful gap. Dominant theoretical frameworks currently used to examine consumers’ reactions to pricing actions, including both theories of fairness and satisfaction, do not predict such personal reactions to price changes. Yet, we see across a variety of extant research findings and anecdotal stories that what we refer to as a ‘taking­it­personally’ bias – the tendency for consumers to interpret firm actions in an overly personalistic way despite no evidence to suggest as much – is prevalent in consumer-firm engagements. This gap in existing frameworks is such that we lack a clear understanding of whether, and if so, when and why consumers take firm pricing actions personally. We also lack an understanding for how these more personal interpretations may have significant downstream consequences for the consumer-firm relationship. The proposed research will address these critical questions and, in doing so, develop a guiding framework for understanding this phenomenon.

JoseConsumer Xenocentrism: Antecedents and Consequences

Principal Investigator: José Rojas-Méndez, International Business
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

A long tradition on country of origin (COO) effect literature argues that the preference of foreign goods is due to extrinsic cues such as product development, quality and design, but recently researchers have found that this is not always the case. Consumers are buying a variety of foreign products when similar or even better quality, lower priced, local products are available in the domestic market. Therefore, this research proposal intends to shed light on why such apparently ‘irrational’ consumer behavior is taking place. A plausible explanation is the existence of consumer xenocentrism. This attitudinal construct has been defined as “a consumer’s internalized belief of the inferiority of domestic products and a corresponding propensity to prefer foreign products for social aggrandizement purposes”.

What factors challenge the quality of internal audit: The case of the Canadian federal government

Principal Investigator: Ouafa Sakka, Accounting
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

The objective of this research is to determine the factors that challenge internal audit function (IAF) quality in the Canadian federal sector, to validate them empirically, and to develop recommendations about how to address them. Based on concepts and findings from the accounting literature on internal auditing, the literature in public sector administration, the IA profession literature, and the Canadian federal government policies on IA, this proposal will determine the reasons why it is still hard for internal auditors to add value to the federal government. Interviews with public servants, public policy makers, and members of the IIA will be used to validate the findings from the literature and will be analyzed using concepts from the governmentality literature. Recommendations on how to overcome the validated challenges will then be formulated.

An analysis of the employment and career development experiences of Canadian immigrant youth

Principal Investigator: Aliya Kuzhabekova, Post Doctoral Fellow
Co-Investigator: Luciara Nardon, International Business
Funder: SSHRC Insight Development

Despite the potential of immigrant youth to productively contribute to Canadian economy, a large share of young immigrants between 15 and 29 years of age, face difficulties in finding and keeping permanent full-time jobs and in developing a satisfying career. Given that immigrant youth comprise half of the working age immigrant population, this problem calls for an immediate action from the government, employers, and youth serving organizations. Young immigrants’ employment challenges hinder not only their potential contribution to the Canadian economy, but also their integration into Canadian society potentially leading to marginalization and radicalization. Despite the critical nature of this social problem, little research has been conducted on the employment experiences and career development of immigrant youth in Canada, especially within business and management literature. The proposed study will draw on cognitive and intersectionality perspectives within international business and careers studies to expand existing understanding about labor market experiences of immigrant youth in Canada.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – SSHRC Engage

Directors and Officers Insurance Protection, Corporate Risk Taking and Performance in Canada

Principal Investigator: Isaac Otchere, Finance
Co-Investigator: Sana Mohsni, Finance
Funder: SSHRC Engage
Partner Organization: Insurance Bureau of Canada

Despite two decades of data availability, we still do not know much about the effects of Directors & Officers (D&O) insurance on corporate risk taking, the quality of corporate governance, and the value effects of D&O in Canada. In the proposed project, we take advantage of the mandatory disclosure requirement of D&O insurance policies in Canada to examine the effects of D&O insurance on corporate risk taking, governance and performance of Canadian publicly traded firms. Through a collaboration with the Insurance Bureau of Canada (IBC), the national industry association representing Canada’s private home, auto and business insurers, we will explore questions at the intersection of D&O liability insurance, risk taking, returns and governance, and through this research, we will be able to better understand the implications of D&O insurance in Canada. The knowledge gained by exploring these research questions will be of great interest to the IBC as it will influence evidence-based policy making and the pricing of D&O insurance premium.

Immigrant Women in IT

Principal Investigator: Aliya Kuzhadekova, Post Doctoral Fellow
Funder: SSHRC Engage
Partner Organization: Ottawa Chinese Community Service Center

In this project we will partner with Ottawa Chinese Community Service Center
(OCCSC) to assist its division, International Talent Acquisition Center (In-TAC), in generating a better
understanding of the employment integration experiences of immigrant women in the field of Information Technology (IT). The research will allow us to understand both the perspective of women on the challenges and barriers they face in the process of employment transition as well as the perspective of employers on the experience of recruiting, managing and retaining immigrant women. The project will also seek to shed light on how
women make career transition decisions and how they make sense of their professional past, present, and future in the context of a new country. Finally, we will seek to uncover the role of race, ethnicity, age
and other characteristics in this process.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council – SSHRC Explore

Robo News in Financial Markets

Principal Investigator: Mohamed Al Guindy, Finance
Funder: SSHRC Explore

Given the rise and significance of robo-activity, the goal of this project is to use Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods to identify the extent to which financial information is generated by robots (rather than humans), and secondly to determine the impact of such news specifically on financial markets. A principal goal of this project is to contribute to the emerging debate on fake news, robo-news, and the emerging field of robo-journalism in financial markets.

The Power of Social Media Influencers

Principal Investigator: Samira Farivar, Information Systems
Funder: SSHRC Explore

This project will examine the factors that make an influencer’s recommendations (promotional posts)
accepted by their followers as well as identifying the different types of influencers that exist on Instagram. These factors will be studied from different perspectives: characteristics of influencers’ posts such as originality; characteristics of influencers such as their relationship with their followers; and the followers’ characteristics such as their decision-making style. The results of this study will help businesses and influencers in understanding the important factors they should take into account in their collaborations.

Other Grant Funding

Kate RuffThe Common Approach to Impact Measurement

Principal Investigator: Kate Ruff, Accounting
Funder: Employment and Social Development Canada & Ontario Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade

Research has shown that the lack of a common measurement is preventing social enterprises from telling their story and demonstrating their impact effectively, which in turn hinders their ability to attract supporters and funding. With over 10,000 social enterprises in Ontario, in fields such as education, health and environmental sustainability, the risk is significant. The Common Approach Project, led by Dr. Kate Ruff, will be the first impact standard that will have the flexibility to allow social enterprises to communicate social and environmental results in ways that are relevant to their missions and communities, while giving funders, researchers and policy makers the tools to collect information aligning to global standards.

Determining Readiness to Change at Police Scotland: Policing 2026

Principal Investigator: Linda Duxbury, Management
Funder: Scottish Police Federation
Partner Organizations: Scottish Police Federation and Police Scotland

The Government of Scotland and other governments around the world struggle to balance the needs of security and public safety with the need for fiscal responsibility in public spending. The task of fulfilling this responsibility falls in large part to police organizations that face challenges in the form of shifting demographics, technological change, strict regulatory oversight, constrained economic resources, tumultuous political realities and the growing concerns about the effects of climate change. In 2016, Police Scotland issued Policing 2026, the long-term strategy to guide development and change for the next 10 years in order to ensure that Police Scotland can continue to maintain a high quality of service, as well enhance its capability in evolving areas such as local community cooperation and cybercrime, in a fiscally responsible manner. The objective of this longitudinal, three year, research study is to better understand how various factors in change program interventions influence organizational readiness to change over time in the context of strong situational factors and a strong organizational culture.

The Future of Work

Principal Investigator: Linda Schweitzer, Management
Funder: Multidisciplinary Research Catalyst Fund, OVPRI, Carleton University

The Future of Work (Transitions) project brings together leading researchers from four faculties (Sprott School of Business, Faculty of Public Affairs, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences) to provide leadership in research addressing the future of work and its contribution to the Canadian economy to better align and leverage our national resources. This research group will focus on various transitions that workers may experience throughout their lifecourse, the possible intersectionality of these experiences, and the potential economic, social and health implications (e.g., labour mobility; precarious work; working conditions; shifting career expectations and attitudes; gender, diversity and inclusion within the work environment). Specifically, the objectives of this project is to build knowledge regarding labour, immigration, organizational effectiveness, social policy and initiatives with the goal of contributing to strengthening Canada’s labour force and labour economy.

An Historical Perspective on Water and the Environment: Insights and Implications from Environmental Philosophy

Principal Investigator: Merridee Bujaki, Professor
Funder: Carleton University, International Seed Grant

This research project that will undertake an historical examination of how water was described during the construction of the Rideau Canal in Canada and the Erie Canal in the United States. We will assess the environmental philosophy underpinning the language used to describe water in historical documents related to each of the canals to give us a clear sense of from what ethical perspective water (as an example of a key natural resource) was viewed in the early 1800s. Both Canada and Australia are significant producers of natural resources and many Canadian and Australian corporations have overseas operations, particularly in the global south. As such, the environmental philosophy underlying corporate environmental reporting by these companies has an impact on the extraction and use of the world’s natural resources globally. This in turn has impacts on the sustainability of communities located near these operations, as well as on climate change and environmental sustainability more generally. We propose a critical discourse analysis of the environmental disclosures of Canadian and Australian companies in the natural resource sector. By examining these disclosures from an ethical philosophy perspective, we hope to have a real-world impact by highlighting how ethical philosophy perspectives influence corporate decision making and how the use of language influences our thinking and our actions with respect to global environmental sustainability.

Financial Innovation and Bank Risk Taking Behavior: The Case of African Banks

Principal Investigator: Isaac Otchere, Professor
Funder: Carleton University, International Seed Grant

Africa has experienced a wave of innovations in the financial sector. Mobile banking, microfinance and microcredit are the leading financial innovations in Africa. Statistics provided by the World Bank (Global Findex Report ) show that Sub-Saharan Africa is by far the region in the world with the most adoption of mobile banking. The significant growth in financial innovations presents opportunities and threats to incumbent financial institutions. These innovations play a significant role in financial inclusion, as they allow the hitherto financially excluded system to play an active role in the economy. Mobile money adoption can promote financial inclusion, which in turn can enhance financial stability. The use of information technology also helps banks to tailor their services to the needs of customers and thus strengthens the relationship of the bank with its customers which is likely to lower non-performing loans and make banks more stable. However, the increased adoption of these innovations can make banks more risky, as reaching lower-ended customers, sometimes unbanked who have now adopted mobile banking, can potentially heighten the volatility to bank income and profitability. Financial innovations in the form of mobile money can also heighten operational risk because of increased security and fraud risks in financial institutions. Despite the growth of financial innovation in Africa, it’s impact on the risk taking incentives of banks and the stability of the banking system in Africa in not known. In the proposed research we examine the effects of financial innovation and more specifically technological innovation on African banks’ risk taking behavior and whether financial innovation enhances or impedes the stability of financial systems. The study is important because it will not only add to existing knowledge on financial innovation-fragility-stability in Sub-Saharan Africa, it will also provide policymakers with useful information in developing policies to address possible effects of innovation on banks stability.

profile photo of daniel gulanowskiFinancial Innovation and Bank Risk Taking Behavior: The Case of African Banks

Principal Investigator: Daniel Gulanowski, Assistant Professor
Funder: CRIW Ignite!, Sprott School of Business

This study aims to identify key factors that may be associated with enhanced career opportunities and employment outcomes for skilled immigrants and international student graduates in Canada. The primary goal of the project is to identify and better understand the role of various structural, interpersonal, and individual factors in facilitating the workforce integration of these two groups.

Cross-sector social partnerships to facilitate operational success of MLSE LaunchPad

Principal Investigator: Andrew Webb, Instructor III
Funder: CRIW Ignite!, Sprott School of Business

This study examines how firms and non-profit organizations come together to achieve successful cross-sector social partnerships, with the goal to better understand the drivers of successful alliances in the growing field of sports for development. Specifically, the study aims to understand how and why firms decide to financially support non-profit agencies such as Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment (MLSE) LaunchPad, a not-for-profit organization designed to explore and measure how sport can help improve the lives of youth and their readiness for work.

COVID-19 Research Funding

Pandemic, panic, and precarity: Interviews with international students stranded in Ottawa during COVID-19

Principal Investigator: Linda Duxbury, Professor
Funder: MITACS
Partner: Canadian Mental Health Association (Ontario)

The COVID-19 pandemic is an on-going health crisis which is having a dramatic impact on Canadians. Daily, the numbers are rising of people infected with, and killed by, the novel coronavirus. In response to the rapid global spread of this virus, provincial and federal governments have enacted a number of increasingly restrictive ‘physical distancing’ measures, including the closure of publicly funded schools in Ontario. Private companies and managers in government departments and agencies have been asked to implement telework for all employees at all non-essential work sites. This has resulted in unprecedented work/life situations for thousands of Canadians, particularly those who are faced with the challenge of working remotely while providing care and home-schooling to their children, and/or care to elderly parents who are particularly vulnerable to health complications from COVID-19. This longitudinal study will collect data from 60-80 Canadian employees in the full-nest stage of the lifecycle (i.e., those with childcare and perhaps also eldercare) living in Ontario. Through an intake survey, followed by weekly phone interviews, researchers will examine the challenges, stressors, and coping strategies of adults throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collection will begin March 30th, 2020 and will continue throughout the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario. These data will allow us to examine how Canadian employees living in Ontario with childcare/eldercare are managing, what strategies they are adopting to cope, and where they are finding support. Results from this study will help governments and business better understand the social and human costs of pandemics and the strategies used to manage them in Canada.

Pandemic, panic, and precarity: Interviews with international students stranded in Ottawa during COVID-19

Principal Investigator: Luciara Nardon, Professor
Funder: CRIW Ignite!, Sprott School of Business

This study investigates the experiences of international students in Ottawa during the COVID-19 pandemic, when traditional sources of emotional and financial support were drastically altered, leaving many international students in a highly precarious situation. The study aims to understand international students’ social situation, perspectives, and strategies to address the challenges they faced. Additionally, the study aims to adapt interviews as a social research tool to provide support for individuals facing a difficult and dynamic situation, enhance their well-being, and recommend adjustments to research tools to provide benefits to participants.

The changing nature of work due to COVID-19

Principal Investigator: Linda Schweitzer, Professor
Funder: CRIW Ignite! COVID-19 Special Funding, Sprott School of Business

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated significant and widespread changes in how most people work. The rapid and urgent shift to remote work has forced many people who would not otherwise have had the opportunity and/or desire to work remotely to do so. As we collectively confront the challenges and opportunities afforded by the mass movement to remote work, this study investigates what working at home through the COVID-19 pandemic reveals about the future of working. Specifically, we explore
the short, medium and long term shifts associated with people’s adjustment to working remotely from home, including the nature of work (employer expectations, hours, workspace), professional identity and career aspirations, the interaction of work and personal life, the division of labour in the home (housework, caregiving) and physical and psychological boundaries.

Work, Family, Life of Police Offices and Their Families During and After a Pandemic – Examination of an Extreme Case

Principal Investigator: Linda Duxbury, Professor
Funder: MITACS
Partner: Canadian Police Association

The COVID-19 pandemic is an on-going health crisis which is having a dramatic impact on how people in Canada and around the world live their lives. Daily, the numbers are rising of people infected with, and killed by, the novel coronavirus. In response to the rapid spread of the virus, provincial and federal governments have enacted a number of ‘physical distancing’ measures, including closures of publicly-funded schools and all non-essential businesses. This has resulted in unprecedent work/life situations for thousands of Canadians. Police, as an essential frontline service, face particular challenges during this pandemic. They must continue their work on the frontline and risk exposure for themselves and their family to the novel coronavirus. They must balance the requirements of a stressful job (demands which have themselves changed because of the pandemic) with the needs of their children (who are now at home), their partner (who may now be unemployed or working from home) and worries about their elderly family members. We propose to undertake a longitudinal multimethod research study that will examine how police, and their spouses/partners are coping with work, family, and life during the pandemic.